American Trakehner

© American Trakehner Association



Trakehner (pronounced Tra-KAY-ner) horses are the oldest of all warmblood breeds.

During a history reaching back more than 400 years, this breed has been systematically "engineered" for performance-first as work horses in East Prussia, later as the refined sport horses that have gained the Trakehner breed its international acclaim.

The breed started centuries ago from a base of small East Prussian horses, the "Schwaike," which had great endurance and versatility. It was originally crossed with larger horses to provide mounts for warfare, general transportation, and agricultural work.

Main Stud at Trakehnen
The Main Stud at Trakehnen, East Prussia
Photo courtesy of the Trakehner Verband Archives, provided by the American Trakehner Association

But in the early 18th century, the father of Fredrick the Great, who was the King of Prussia, began to see the need for a new type of cavalry mount for his army. War tactics had changed and required a lighter horse more comfortable to ride over long distances, with more endurance and speed than the heavy horses previously needed to carry armor and haul military equipment. So he chose the best horses from seven of his royal breeding farms, and in 1732 moved them all to the new royal stud at Trakehnen, East Prussia. Through careful use of only English Thoroughbred and "oriental" blood, a horse of nobility, elegant movements and great endurance was developed. Trakehners carried their riders into battle against Napoleon at Waterloo in 1815 and were sought after by the military of many European countries.

Although the Trakehnen stud had large mare herds, East Prussian farmers were also encouraged to bring their mares, by then known for their hardiness and quality, to Trakehnen's stallions. This allowed for the rapid transformation of the breed into sure-footed, intelligent, and athletic horses. By 1918, 60,000 mares were bred to East Prussian stallions each year.

Early Stallion
Some of the stallion testing at the Trakehner stud. The breed was always severely culled, and only the best were allowed to reproduce. The resulting sport horse was thus highly suitable for all the Olympic disciplines, and Trakehners have competed in every Olympic Games except 1932.
© American Trakehner Association


Photo courtesy of the Trakehner Verband Archives, provided by the American Trakehner Association

One of the greatest influences on the breed was the Thoroughbred stallion Perfectionist, son of Persimmon, who won the English Derby and the St. Leger in 1896. The best of his sons, Tempelhüter, was the main sire at Trakehnen in the 1920s and provided a powerful line that is recognized as the foundation for the modern Trakehner.

During the 1920s and 1930s the breed was seen for the true performance horse it was. The Gold and Silver medals in dressage in the 1924 Olympics went to Trakehners. In the 1928 Olympics, a Trakehner won the Bronze medal in the three-day event.


Nurmi, the 1936 Olympic Gold medalist in three-day eventing.
American Trakehner Association


In 1936, known as the "Year of the Trakehner," a Trakehner named Kronos won the individual and team Gold medals in dressage, while another, Absinth, took the individual Silver and shared the team Gold medal. A Trakehner named Nurmi won Gold in three-day eventing. Also that year, the German jumping team came to the United States to compete atMadison Square Garden and a Trakehner, Dedo, was on their Prix des Nations winning team.

Shortly after that period of time, however, came the darkest days in the history of the breed. The breed population was reduced by half in the First World War. Without enough time between the World wars to recover their losses, the Second World War would bring the breed to the edge of extinction.


Opa Engelhardt

Cavalry officer Oscar Engelhardt clearing a fence on a Trakehner in 1936. Between 1921-1936, a Czechoslovakian steeplechase, considered to be one of the most difficult in the world, was won nine times by Trakehners.
Photo courtesy of the Engelhardt Family Archives, provided by the American Trakehner Association

Several attempts were made to move the horses to safety, but few made it. As the war neared its end in late 1944-early 1945, the Trakehnen Stud and local residents were finally given official permission by Nazi administrators to evacuate, just ahead of the advancing Russian front. The journey away from the fighting has become known as "The Trek" because it was an evacuation so long and so tragic, it had no comparison. East Prussian refugees and their Trakehner horses began a 600-mile journey to safety without proper rations or shelter. Hitching their precious breeding stock to carts loaded with their possessions, the populace-almost entirely women, children, and elderly people-fled. It is not unusual to hear Trek survivors or their descendants telling the story of losing their horses and family members during the trip. Many of the mares, heavy with foals,    had to be left to forage for themselves or to be captured by the Russians.

Over snow drifted roads, frozen rivers and seas, they made their way westward while constantly being strafed from the air and pursued by Russian troops. Many people and horses on The Trek were lost when they fell through the ice. Almost 600,000 East Prussian citizens died. As for their horses, from a Trakehner breeding population of 25,000 broodmares and 1200 approved stallions, only 1500 arrived in Germany. From the main stud of Trakehnen, only 27 broodmares could be saved. The once proud and beautiful horses surviving limped into Germany, suffering from open wounds from shrapnel, and with burlap bags frozen to their feet in place of shoes. What horses the Russian army did not consume for food either perished or starved. A few were confiscated and taken behind the Iron Curtain to create very small breeding populations in Russia, Poland and Lithuania. The most important stallions were lost during The Trek. Some were known to have been shot by the Russians.

Approved Trakehner stallion Oskar II, a US Dressage Federation multiple "Horse of the Year" at Prix St. Georges and Grand Prix dressage levels, bred at the Russian Kirov stud.
© C.W. Chandlee, provided by the American Trakehner Association

Others were captured and taken to Kirov, where they established a stud responsible for producing one of today's most powerful sport horses, the Russian Trakehner. Almost 60 young colts were evacuated to the German state stud at Celle earlier in the war, but some were gelded and others were confiscated by the English, French and American armies at war's end. For example, the English army took some of the best black and chestnut stallions away for the Royal cavalry in London.

The surviving horses were accounted for and on October 23, 1947 the East Prussian Studbook Society from 1890 was dissolved and the Association of Breeders and Friends of the Warmblood Horse of Trakehner Origin, known today as the Trakehner Verband, was created. Among the greatest obstacles the organization faced was that, unlike other German warmblood breeds, the Trakehner had no mother state and could not depend on government funding. The re-establishment of the breed originally depended on the determination of its members and the generosity of others.

Breed Standards


Today the Trakehner Verband oversees 10 affiliated organizations around the world, including the American Trakehner Association (ATA) for North America, which was formed in 1974. All 10 Trakehner breed societies-Lithuania, France, Poland, Denmark, New Zealand, Croatia, Switzerland, Russia and the United Kingdom, as well as North America, share the devotion to the breed which has brought it back from near extinction. They adhere to the strict requirements needed to maintain the purity of the breed, and display their approved logo brand based on the historical moose antler symbol for the Trakehner.

Approved Trakehner stallion Hirtentanz, demonstrating his jumping ability at his inspection for the Holsteiner warmblood registry, for which he is also an approved stallion.
© Kevin O'Meara, provided by the American    Trakehner Association

The Trakehner is the only warmblood breed to maintain a "closed" stud book. That is, although select Thoroughbred, Arabian and Shagya blood is judiciously added, no other warmblood is ever allowed. On the other hand, Trakehners have for many years been routinely used as a "refiner" of other breeds. Influential stallions include Herbststurm who influenced the Oldenburg, Marco Polo for the Dutch Warmblood, Ibikus for the Danish Warmblood, Polarstern for the Swedish Warmblood and Chrysos for the Westphalian.

Perhaps one of the most influential Trakehner sires for another warmblood is that of Abglanz for the Hanoverian. He is credited with bringing about improvement in the head and neck of the Hanoverians of that day, and sired 19 approved sons. Abglanz was one of the young colts evacuated to the stud at Celle early in World War II, as noted in the history above. He spent his entire breeding career there siring foals with Hanoverian mares, so his influence in the Trakehner studbook was limited. Nevertheless, he still produced nine registered Trakehner daughters and three approved Trakehner sons: Kassio, Morgenglanz (a Breyer model) and Valentin.

Emerald Fire at a mare inspection
© Alicia Frese, Frese Frame Photography, provided by the American Trakehner Association

All large animal breeding in Germany is regulated by law, and as such, stallions must be licensed before they are allowed to breed. Thus, Trakehner inspections are held for all stallion candidates not only in Germany, but also in North America and elsewhere around the world. The ATA holds stallion inspections across North America each year to rate the horses' gaits, conformation, jumping ability and temperament. Approximately 2 of every 100 colts produced in Canada and the U.S. are ultimately approved for breeding by the ATA. The candidates must have completed a veterinary check and have multiple x-rays to ensure their soundness. They are required to have certain minimum measurements, including height. Then, before being given full breeding licenses, the stallions given conditional approval by the inspectors must complete a performance test to demonstrate their performance ability, by completing a combined training event of dressage, a cross-country course, and stadium jumping.

Lord Luciano
Lord Luciano,the first Trakehner born and raised in the US to be approved in Germany, shown at the International Trakehner Bundechampionship in Hannover, where he placed 2nd at the Prix St Georges level.
© Ronnie O'Sullivan, provided by the American Trakehner Association

Trakehner mares are also inspected by the ATA at various North American locations each year for conformation, gaits, and temperament. They should have a feminine aspect and, as for all Trakehners at inspection, their "type" is also evaluated.

Mares and stallions anywhere in the world are required to be inspected and approved for their offspring to be fully registered with a Trakehner Verband association. Trakehner stallions already approved by their nation's Trakehner association frequently go through inspections by other warmblood registries and are approved for breeding with them.

For the first time in warmblood history, a stallion bred and born in North America was approved in Germany when Lord Luciano, from Vermont, was inspected and approved in Germany in 2006. The Verband Breed Director said, "For the first time in 50 years there will be a young stallion bred outside of Germany entered into (German) stud books."


1984 US Olympic team Gold medal and individual Silver medalist Abdullah *Pg*E*. Abdullah was honored as one of the "Top 50 Horses of the Century" by the Chronicle of the Horse magazine, and won the 1985 World Cup in Berlin at the age of 15. At the 1986 World Championships in Aachen, Germany (above), he was awarded the Gold medal and named the "World Champion Horse."
© Sue Williams, provided by the American Trakehner Association

Trakehners receive performance awards and recognition from the ATA which are then attached to their names. For example, the great jumper Abdullah (a Breyer model) received a performance "gold" award for his many accomplishments, shown forever after his name as Abdullah *Pg*. He also received the distinction of an "E" after his performance designation, showing his standing as an "Elite" sire, or one which hasearned at least 50 points on a score system based on not only the stallion's performance in competition, but also the performance and approval status of his offspring. Abdullah has sired five approved stallions in the U.S. to date, including the performance gold stallion Special Memories *Pg*. But performance lineage can be traced through the mares a stallion has sired, as well. For example, the approved stallion Stiletto *Ps* was sired by Martini *Pg*E* and Abdullah was his damsire. Abdullah also sired a performance "bronze" daughter, Riesenstern *Pb*.


Stiletto *Ps* was sired by Martini *Pg*E* and is an Abdullah *Pg*E* grandson
© Shannon Brinkman, Shannon Brinkman Photography, provided by the American Trakehner Association
Martini *Pg*E* is a multiple US Dressage Federation "Horse of the Year" and the sire of three approved Trakehner stallions to date. He stood first or second on the USDF's Leading Sire list from1994 until his death in 2001.
© Shannon Brinkman, Shannon Brinkman Photography, provided by the American Trakehner Association



Larissa *Pg*
© Shawn Hamilton, CLiX Photography, provided by the American Trakehner Association

Geldings and mares, as well as stallions, can receive distinction through performance achievement. The ATA's great four-star event horse Larissa *Pg* was the top placed Canadian horse at a CCI**** Rolex three-day event, represented Canada at the World Equestrian Games in Spain in 2002, and also competed in two consecutive Olympic Games for Canada, making her at that time the top Trakehner eventer at international championships for the past 20 years. Larissa *Pg* was named the "Top Mare of the Year" by the US Combined Training Association in 2000, was the top mare at Badminton Horse Trials in Englandin 2003, and won a Silver team medal at the 2003 Pan American Games.

Mares can also receive distinction for their foals. They can be designated as "Elite" mares if they produce outstanding offspring. Among some of the ways a mare can receive the coveted *E* designation after her name, is if she has two sons approved as breeding stallions.


Mares that receive exceptionally high scores at their inspection receive the "Model Mare" distinction and a *M* after their name.

Hennie *M* won the "Model Mare" designation from inspectors because of her excellent movement, type,and conformation.
© Pam Norton, provided by the American Trakehner Association


Last but far from least, Trakehner mares that produce 10 registered foals receive the distinction of having their names added to the select "Honor Roll" of mares.

The Breed Today

Although once nearly wiped out, the Trakehner breed is well into the process of recovering. Today it is the smallest in number of the warmblood breeds, with a population only about one-tenth of the numbers of other breeds. While some warmbloods produce around 15,000 foals a year, the Trakehner may have 1,000-1,200 foals born. However, because approved Trakehner stallions are so often used to improve other breeds, there is much more Trakehner blood in the warmblood world than shows by registration.

The 2003 Pan-American Games Gold medalist and 2004 Olympic Bronze medalist, approved Trakehner stallion Windfall *Pg*, is shown at the 2006 World Cup Eventing finals. Windfall was the US Eventing Association's 2003 Horse of the Year, stands second in their lifetime rankings, and is also approved for breeding by the U.S. Hanoverian Society and Hanoverian Verband, among others.
© Dr. Tim Holekamp, provided by the American Trakehner Association

There are also more and more Trakehners in international competition. Since 1984, Olympic medals won just by U.S. teams have gone to three Trakehner stallions: Abdullah *Pg*E* was the team Gold and individual Silver medal winning jumper in 1984 in Los Angeles; Peron *Pg* was the Bronze medalist in dressage in 1996 in Atlanta; and Windfall *Pg* was a team Bronze medal- winning eventer in 2004 in Athens. Other countries have also had Trakehners competing and winning medals for their Olympic teams.

Among the international riders rediscovering Trakehners are the Olympic gold medalist Anky van Grunsven, riding both Partout and the KWPN-registered Painted Black by Gribaldi; the late Reiner Klimke with Biotop; Elmar Gundel on Almox Prints; Andreas Helgstrad with Danish-registered Blue Hors Matine by the Trakehner stallion Silvermoon; and Edward Gal on both the late Gribaldi and Gribaldi's KWPN-registered son Moorland's Totilas, the world record holder in Grand Prix dressage as of the 2010 World Equestrian Games.


The Trakehner Gribaldi, sired by the great Trakehner stallion Kostolany, has himself lately become known as a major performance-producing sire. Aside from Moorland's Totilas and Painted Black, he also sired Hofrat, runner-up at the 2000 Hanoverian grading and sire of the 2005 Hanoverian champion stallion Hotline.

Young rider Laura Noyes, a US Dressage Federation   Gold, Silver, and Bronze medalist on her Trakehner, Syncro. The pair also won the2008 individual Gold medal and team Silver at the North American Young Rider Championships and qualified for the US Equestrian Federation's "Brentina Cup" National Championships in 2010 and 2011.
© American Trakehner Association

The Trakehner of today can be any color, with bay, gray, chestnut and black being the most common. It is considered to be the lightest and most refined of the warmbloods, with the head clearly showing the Thoroughbred and Arabian blood in the breed. Knowledgeable horse people can readily identify a Trakehner from other warmbloods. The Trakehner is a large horse, standing generally between 16 and 17 hands. It is characterized by great substance and bone, yet displays surprising refinement. It is a superb performance horse with natural elegance and balance. It excels in dressage because of its elegant way of moving-the light, springy, "floating trot," and soft, balanced canter made possible by a deep, sloping shoulder and a correct, moderately long back and pasterns. With its characteristic, powerful hindquarters and strong joints and muscles, the breed also produces outstanding jumpers.




However, perhaps the most outstanding attribute of the Trakehner, who long had an undeserved reputation as being "hot" or spooky, is its temperament. It is alert and intelligent, yet stable and anxious to please. For this reason, Trakehners are known to be not only a performance champion, but more importantly, an everyday friend that is easy to train and easy to love.


A young Canadian Trakehner friend with her future rider!
© Misty Gay, provided by the American Trakehner Association


Additional Information

For additional information contact:

    American Trakehner Association
    1536 W. Church Street
    Newark, OH 43055
    (740) 344-1111